There are occupations that require speaking different languages and doing it well. For example, diplomat. And US Federal Service Institute issued the official study on how long does it take for their future foreign service officers to acquire a new language. Like, any language! So how many hours to learn a language will make you fluent?
Let’s imagine for a minute that you’re about to become an american spy diplomat and this is your first day in FSI.
Intro data: you are native English speaker and you have never touched that old [French / German/ Swahili ] dictionary on a dusty shelf.
Your future: you will reach what they call “professional working proficiency”, or level 3 (out of 6) in the ILR (Interagency Language Roundtable), in the record time. To be more clear, you will be quite at ease in speaking with natives without them being annoyed by your accent or childs’s level grammar mistakes. Woohoo!
So, how many hours you need to go from there to here?
Different languages take different time to learn
The languages are different. But before we submerge into the discussion about semantic and phonetic differences between Slavic languages and those of Dravidian family, let’s note that we are interested only in how these tongues are different from English.
By the way, these differences are not as huge as you might think.
To illustrate this point FSI grouped the majority of languages in 4 categories, depending on how much they are vary from English. Here are they are:
Category I, or the easy-peasy
- Romance languages – Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian
North Germanic languages – Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Dutch
Category II, or the exotic blend
- Malay languages – Malay and Indonesian
- Haitian Creole
Category III, or where you find the most of languages
- Baltic and Slavic languages – Russian, Ukranian, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
- Hellenic languages – Greek, Makedonian;
- Uralic languages – Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian;
- Semitic languages – Hebrew, Amharic;
- Indian languages – Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Telugu, Tamil, Sinhala
- Somali, Georgian, Armenian, Turkish, Kurdish, Azerbajani, Turkmen, Khmer, Vietnamese, Thai… et cetera
P.S. This group includes many more languages that are not listed here. You can always check the full (but-not-exhaustive) list of category III languages in Foreign Service Institute webpage.
Category IV, or “the red zone”
- Asian languages: Chinese, Japanese, Korean
How many hours to learn a language from each group are needed?
Now, since we figured out the categories, let’s jump on the findings of the study:
As a future diplomat, you will have to spend aproximately 600-700 hours in Federal Service Institute to reach independency in any language from the first category.
To reach the same level in the category II, your time investment will have to increase in by 1/3! It is to say, you will devote at least 900 hours to that notorious German and the languages that happened to group with it.
Things get even more tricky in that huge category III. As these languages require around 1100 hours, before you feel capable of holding an engaging conversation with a Russian KGB officer.
And I’m really sorry for you if you love Japanese and wonder how many hours separates you from learning it. Because as any language from category IV, it will suck 2200 hours of your life to reach, once again, the same fluency level.
Where are these differences coming from?
When building this chart, FSI took into account different cultural and linguistic parameters of a given language.
For example, how many hours to learn a language are needed if you choose one that is similar to English? Just 600 hours. The reason? English shares a significant part of its vocabulary with French, Spanish, Portuguese and other Romance languages. And it’s simply because all of them evolved from the same Vulgar Latin around 12-15 centuries ago.
Now, try to find any resemblance between English and Chinese? I, personally, struggle with this task but if you found some feel free to share it in the comments below!
Let’s go further.
Writing system is also important.
Notice that all the languages of category 1 and 2 use the same Latin script. This is not the case, however, is you deal with tongues from the third category, since many of them introduce Cyrillic script, their own alphabets or, worse, some kind of abugida.
In the fourth category, we depart from the usual writing system at all and come to what is called logography. Obviously, you will have hard time learning the whole new writing system… and then developing your reading competence on the level when you are able to at least read posts in Chinese Twitter.
This is there that drastic gap of 1100 hours between 3rd and 4th category is coming from.
How many hours a day do you have to study the language?
Of course, the total amount of hours needed to speak a language is very handy when you try to estimate how much time your task will really take.
But, hey, there are 24 hours in one day; does it mean that you can learn Spanish in 25 days?
Well, if you don’t need to sleep…
When publishing this study, FSI gave not only the total of hours but also the total of weeks needed to make you fully bilingual servant of US Foreign Affairs system.
And the main assumption of their Schoold of Language Studies was that you would study your target language for 25 hours a week. This comes to approximately 3,5 hours every day or (in case you want to keep your weekend monolingual) to 5 hours from Monday to Friday.
These are pretty severe conditions, n’est-ce pas?
However, take into account our tendecy to forget 60% of words you’ve just learned after just one hour – unless you use special strategies to memorize new vocabulary. Take into account our tendency to shift to our first language as we have hard time accessing information or explaning something serious. Take into account our natural tendency to procrastinate, after all!
Amazing 20/80: how many hours to learn the most spoken languages?
Now, let’s say you want to quickly learn a new language and become a happy bilingual individual. Having all the FSI data, what language does it makes more sense to learn?
According to Ethnologue, the category I (or those easy-peasy tongues) miraculously includes 3 out of 10 most spoken languages around the world. Let me quickly refresh these data:
As you see, the second most spoken language is Chinese with almost a billion of native speakers and another 200 millions of those who learned it as a second language.
However, you will need to spend 2200 hours to reach a solid proficiency level.
The third the most popular language is Hindustani or Hindi/Urdu together. I wouldn’t count them together though, since their writing systems are completely different.
How many hours to learn a language from category II are required? 1100 hours.
Now let’s do a simple math.
Learn 3+ languages instead of just one within the same time
Moreover, with these three languages you will be able to communicate fluently in 70 countries and territories, while Chinese will open the doors in just 5.
Isn’t it a clear example of how the Pareto Low applies to language learning? With just 20% of effort you achieve 80% of resultats. You can waste an enormous amount of time on learning one hard language or spend x4 less time on studying the easier language. But the one that would give you a freedom to travel around the world.
And only thing you need is to be smart about language learning.